RPL31 Protein Vector
|Description||These RPL31 protein vectors can be used for high level expression of the RPL31 protein. Protein vectors are available for expressing from bacterial or mammalian cells with a variety of tags for easy purification.|
|Unit quantity||500 ng|
|Vector Map||pPB-C-His, pPB-His-GST, pPB-His-MBP, pPB-N-His, pPM-C-HA, pPM-C-His, pPM-N-D-C-HA, pPM-N-D-C-His|
|Full Gene Name||ribosomal protein L31|
|Storage Condition||1 year when stored at -20°C or lower in a non-frost free freezer.|
|Storage Buffer||10mM Tris-HCI, 1mM EDTA, pH8.0|
|Species||This gene is available from: Human,Mouse,Rat|
|Guarantee||abm guarantees that the correct ORF construct is provided and the mRNA expression is displayed upon successful transduction. If this is not the case, we will provide a one-time replacement. Customers must provide adequate data to show >80% transfection efficiency with a positive control, plus additional qPCR data to evaluate the level of gene expression. The replacement will not be covered by the same guarantee.|
Please note that due to the large number of variables applicable, any further expression analysis (e.g. protein expression) is not covered by the guarantee, as such analysis is dependent on the end user's experimental conditions.
|Disclaimer||1) Disclaimer for Transcript Variants: The provided accession number refers to the transcript (mRNA) sequence for this product. The molecular sequence of this clone aligns with the gene accession number as a point of reference only. However, individual transcript sequences of the same gene can differ through naturally occurring variations (e.g. polymorphisms), each with its own valid existence. This clone is substantially in agreement with the reference, but a complete review of all prevailing variants is recommended prior to use. All sales are final.|
2) Disclaimer for Gene Sequence: The provided accession number refers to the transcript (mRNA) sequence for this product. Please verify that this is the desired transcript sequence by cross-referencing. This is important because a single gene can have multiple different transcripts owing to naturally occurring variations. All sales are final.
3) Disclaimer for Intended Use: All of abm's vectors and viral particles are for research use ONLY and NOT for therapeutic/diagnostic applications. abm is not liable for any repercussions arising from the use of its vector(s) in therapeutic/diagnostic application(s).
4) Disclaimer for Extra Nucleotides: Cloning may lead to the insertion of extra nucleotides at the 5' or 3' end of the target sequence which, in most cases, is innocuous to the stability/functionality of the construct.
5) abm guarantees that at least 1 out of the 3 sgRNA constructs purchased in a set designed to be used with Cas9 Nuclease will result in gene knock-out due to frameshift mutations in over 50% of cells, after successful infection and drug selection. This guarantee applies to sgRNAs designed to target human, mouse or rat genes only. If knock-out is not achieved in extremely rare cases, a one-time replacement of another set of 3 targets with alternative sgRNA sequences will be provided. To qualify for this replacement, customers must examine knock-out efficiency by Surveyor assay. Before sending your inquiry, please make sure you have optimized your experiments as far as possible. This includes (where applicable) increasing and optimizing your MOI, increasing the duration of infection (up to 72 h), and carrying out clone screening before assaying for knock-out. Please also provide data to show that a reporter virus was used to optimize the MOI for your target cell line. Customers must provide adequate data to show >80% infection efficiency with a positive control, plus additional qPCR data to evaluate the level of mRNA expression.
For vector transfection, please evaluate the vector transfection efficiency by detecting Cas9 or puromycin expression for the 'All-in-One' vectors using qPCR, or neomycin for constructs containing only the sgRNA. In addition, please provide Surveyor Assay or Sanger Sequencing data on at least 20 isolated clones.
abm limits its obligation and liability for the success of this technology to providing one replacement of any sgRNA lentivector product only. The replacement set will not be covered by the same guarantee. If these constructs are also considered to be ineffective then the gene is most likely not susceptible to sgRNA knock-out.
|What is the difference between Retro-, Lenti-, and Adeno- viruses?|
Retrovirus: Classic, can integrate into the genome but with low transduction efficiency. They are useful for gene transfer and protein expression in cells that have low transfection efficiency with other transfection reagents. Lentivirus: Can integrate into the genome with relatively high transduction efficiency and they are very useful for cells that have low transfection efficiency with other transfection reagents. No special competent cells required, as they are stable plasmids. Lentiviruses are a powerful tool for stable gene transfer to both dividing and non-dividing cells in vitro and in vivo. Adenovirus: Only work transiently (about 7 days) but have almost 100% transduction efficiency. Adenoviruses can infect a broad range of cell types with the highest efficiency and infection is not dependent on active host cell division. A second key feature is that high virus titers and high-level gene expression can be obtained in most mammalian cells.
|What are the correct concentration units for each recombinant viral particle?|
For lentiviruses and retroviruses, they are measured in CFU/ml (colony-forming units per millilitre). Transduction with lentiviruses and retroviruses can cause the formation of colonies, which can be quantified for concentration. For AAV the titer is measured as genome copies per mL (GC/mL). Adenoviruses are measured as PFU/ml (plaque-forming units per millilitre). Transduction with adenoviruses will kill packaging cells, forming plaques in the process for quantification. The concentration for all three types of viruses can also be classified as IU/ml (Infectious Units/ml). Ultimately, the units refers to the viral particles and different units reflect the different assays involved.
|How long after transduction can the infection efficiency be observed?|
You can observe transduction efficiency from 48 hours up to 5 days after infection.
- Wang, Q., Yu, H., Yu, H., Ma, M., Ma, Y., & Li, R. "miR‑223‑3p/TIAL1 interaction is involved in the mechanisms associated with the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine on hippocampal neuronal cells in�vitro" Molecular Medicine Reports. : (2018). DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9742.
- Xu, T., He, B. S., Pan, B., Pan, Y. Q., Sun, H. L., Liu, X. X., ... & Wang, S. K. "MiR‐142‐3p functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting RAC1/PAK1 pathway in breast cancer" Journal of Cellular Physiology. : (2019).
- Zhang, B., Roosmalen, I. A. M., Reis, C. R., Setroikromo, R., & Quax, W. J. "Death receptor 5 is activated by fucosylation in colon cancer cells" The FEBS Journal 286(3):555–571 (2019). DOI: 10.1111/febs.14742.
- Zhao, Q., Zhao, S., Li, J., Zhang, H., Qian, C., Wang, H., … Zhao, Y. "TCF7L2 activated HOXA-AS2 decreased the glucocorticoid sensitivity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia through regulating HOXA3/EGFR/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway" Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 109:1640–1649 (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.046.